The heart (Latin, cast) is a cavity, a muscular organ cavity that pumps blood through blood vessels by repeated rhythmic contractions. The term cardiac means to be related to the heart, from the Greek word cardia to the heart. The heart is one of the human organs that play a role in the circulatory system.

  1. Heart Surface

The size of the human heart is about as big as a fist. The heart is a single muscle consisting of the layer of endothelium. The heart lies inside the thoracic cavity, behind the breastbone. The heart structure turns down and slightly to the left.

The heart is almost completely enveloped by the lungs, but covered by a double membrane called the pericardium, which is attached to the diaphragm. The first layer attaches very closely to the heart, while the outer layer is more loose and watery, to avoid friction between organs in the body that occurs due to constant pumping motion of the heart.

The heart is kept in place by blood vessels that include a flat, flat heart area, such as at the base and on the side. Two dividing lines (formed from muscle) in the outer layer of the heart indicate where the wall separates between the porch & the heart chambers.

  1. Internal Heart Structure

Internally, the heart is separated by a muscle layer into two halves, from top to bottom, into two pumps. Both of these pumps since birth were never connected. The hemisphere consists of two cavities separated by the heart wall. Then it can be concluded that the heart consists of four cavities, the right & left foyer and the right & left chambers.

The porch walls are much thinner than the walls of the chamber because the chambers must resist the gravitational force of the earth to pump from the bottom up and require a greater force to supply large blood circulation, especially the aortic vessels, to pump to all parts of the body that have blood vessels.

Each porch and chamber in each hemisphere is connected by a valve. The valve between the right portico and the right chamber is called the tricuspid valve or the triple leaf valve. While the valve that is between the left portico and the left ventricle is called the mitral valve or the bicuspid valve (second-leaved valve).

  1. How Heart Works

At the pulse every chamber of the heart relaxes and is filled with blood (called diastole). Furthermore, the heart contracts and pumps blood out of the heart chamber (called systole). Both porches relax and contract simultaneously, and the two chambers also relax and contract simultaneously.

Blood that runs out of oxygen and contains a lot of carbon dioxide (dirty blood) from the entire body flows through two large veins (vena cava) into the right atrium. After the right atrium is filled with blood, it will push blood into the right ventricle through the tricuspid valve.

The blood from the right ventricle will be pumped through the pulmonary valve into the pulmonary artery leading to the lungs. Blood will flow through the very small vessels (capillaries) that surround the air bag in the lungs, absorb oxygen, release carbon dioxide and then flowed back to the heart.

Oxygen-rich blood flows in the pulmonary vein leading to the left atrium. The circulation of blood between the right part of the heart, lungs and the left atrium is called the pulmonary circulation because blood is passed to the lungs.

Blood in the left atrium will be pushed into the left ventricle via the bicuspid / mitral valve, which will then pump this clean blood through the aortic valve into the aorta (the largest artery in the body). This oxygen-rich blood is circulated throughout the body, except the lungs. Etc.

  1. Regarding Heart Health

The heart is one of the most important organs of the body, heart defects can be at risk of death. Heart problems are divided because the heart organ failure is often almost two parts, heart disease and heart attack.

4.1. Heart disease

Heart disease is a condition that causes the heart cannot perform its duties properly. These include:

Weak heart muscle. This is a congenital abnormality. Weak heart muscles make the patient unable to excessive activity, because excessive heart performance implantation will cause pain in the chest, and sometimes can cause the body to appear bluish. Patients with weak heart muscle are easily fainted.

The existence of a gap between the right and left porch, because the imperfect formation of a layer that separates between the two porches when the patient is still in the womb. This causes clean blood and dirty blood mixed. This disease also makes the patient unable to perform heavy activities, because heavy activity will almost certainly make the patient’s body becomes blue and shortness of breath, although not causing pain in the chest. There is also a variation of this disease, namely the sufferer really only has one porch.

4.1.1. Heart attack

A heart attack is a condition that causes the heart to fail at all. This condition usually occurs suddenly, and is often called heart failure. The cause of heart failure varies, but the main cause is usually the inhibition of blood supply to the heart muscles, because the blood vessels that normally drain the blood to the heart muscle is blocked or hardened, either because of fat and cholesterol, or because of substances Chemical ingredients such as excessive drug use containing Phenol Propano Alanine (ppa).

Lately it is also often found sudden heart failure when someone is on the move, as it strikes some of the world’s leading soccer athletes in the middle of a soccer field. Usually it is caused by the imposition of heart activity that exceeds the threshold, or lack of warm up before doing sports.

Food is also a major cause of heart attacks, especially fast food (junk food). Researchers from McMaster University, Canada, found results that people who consume fried foods, snacks and meat have a heart attack risk of more than 35 percent greater than those who consume little or no consumption.

4.2. Countermeasures

There is no better prevention to prevent illness and heart attack, in addition to a healthy lifestyle (such as waking up early, not frequent sleeping too late, and avoiding smoking and alcoholic beverages), a healthy diet (eating more fiber and vegetable, and not too much eating fatty foods and high cholesterol), and regular exercise and not excessive. However, there are some substances that are believed to be able to minimize or increase the risk of disease and heart attacks, among others:

  • Some researchers say that allicin substances in garlic turned out to help maintain heart health. The study showed that by the efficacy of allicin substances, blood vessel tension was reduced by 72%. However, some other researchers have also stated that there is no relationship between garlic and heart health. In a study conducted on 90 overweight smokers, European researchers found that the addition of garlic powder for 3 months did not show any change in their cholesterol levels or some other sign of heart disease risk.
  • Interventional cardiovascular medicine is done to intervene the heart with a variety of actions.
  • Studies show that reducing smoking does not reduce the risk of heart disease. To really reduce the risk of heart disease, one should really stop smoking.
  • The discovery, published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology, said the consumption of Vitamin C supplements may reduce the risk of heart disease.
  • Research shows, reducing the consumption of salt can reduce the risk of heart disease. Consumption of salt can increase blood pressure. In a low-salt diet trial showed the risk of heart disease up to 25% and the risk of heart attack up to 20%
  • Consumption of heart-healthy foods such as Salmon, Tomato, Olive Oil, Wheat, Almond, and Apple, and other herbal remedies.

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